Berikut ini adalah tahapan-tahapan yang dilakukan saat memulai sebuah project baru. Baik itu project Information Technology atau project lainnya. Based on PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge).
- Business Case: To justify the financial investment in your project, you need to write a Business Case. It lists the costs and benefits, so everyone knows what the return on investment will be.
- Feasibility Study: Before you kick-off your project, you need to determine whether your project is feasible, using a Feasibility Study.
- Project Charter: You then need to document the objectives, scope, team, timeframes and deliverables in a Project Charter.
- Project Plan: You need to create a Project Plan listing all of the tasks required to undertake your project from start to finish. Every task must be scheduled, so you know what needs to be done and when.
- Resource Plan: Next, you need to plan your resources by documenting the money, equipment and materials needed for your project.
- Quality Plan: You then need to set quality targets, so that the project deliverables meet the expectations of your customer.
- Risk Plan: All of the risks need to be documented and their likelihoodand impact on the project identified.
- Communication Plan: You need to plan your communications, so that you send the right messages to the right people, at the right time.
- Time Management: You need to use Timesheets to track time spent on your project. Then update your Project Plan with your Timesheet data to see whether your project is still within schedule.
- Cost Management: Track your costs using Expense Forms. Every expense is formally logged and approved, so that you can confirm at any time that you are currently under budget.
- Change Management: Document each change to the project scope, using Change Forms. You can then control change to ensure your project is always on track.
- Risk Management: Use Risk Forms to document each risk to the project. You can then manage project risk carefully to ensure that nothing happens that will affect the project schedule or budget.
- Issue Management: As each issue occurs on the project, you need to investigate its impact on the project and then write it up on an Issue Form. You can then kick off the tasks needed to resolve it quickly.
- Project Closure Report: When your project is complete, document all of the actions needed to close the project properly. This includes releasing teams and suppliers, equipment and materials.
- Post Project Review: And after your project has been closed, you can review its success and document the results for your sponsor. That way, you can show that all of the objectives were met and that the project was delivered on time and within budget.
PMBOK version :
The PMBOK Guide is process-based, meaning it describes work as being accomplished by processes. This approach is consistent with other management standards such as ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute‘s CMMI. Processes overlap and interact throughout a project or its various phases. Processes are described in terms of:
- Inputs (documents, plans, designs, etc.)
- Tools and Techniques (mechanisms applied to inputs)
- Outputs (documents, products, etc.)
The Guide recognizes 42 processes that fall into five basic process groups and nine knowledge areas that are typical of almost all projects.
- The five process groups are:
- Monitoring and Controlling
- The nine knowledge areas are:
- Project Integration Management
- Project Scope Management
- Project Time Management
- Project Cost Management
- Project Quality Management
- Project Human Resource Management
- Project Communications Management
- Project Risk Management
- Project Procurement Management
Each of the nine knowledge areas contains the processes that need to be accomplished within its discipline in order to achieve an effective project management program. Each of these processes also falls into one of the five basic process groups, creating a matrix structure such that every process can be related to one knowledge area and one process group.
The PMBOK Guide is meant to offer a general guide to manage most projects most of the time. There are currently two extensions to the PMBOK Guide: the Construction Extension to the PMBOK Guide applies to construction projects, while the Government Extension to the PMBOK Guide applies to government projects.